02/01/2007

Entrainement à la Parole juste

Entrainement à la Parole juste

 

Entrainement à la Parole juste. Ce fichier est envoyé automatiquement à chaque inscription, et tous les mois à chaque membre.
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I. LA PAROLE JUSTE EN BREF
 
" La Parole juste signifie l'abstention :
 
1.du mensonge //musavada, en langue palie//;
 
2.de la médisance, de la calomnie et de toutes paroles susceptibles de
causer la haine, l'inimitié, la désunion, la disharmonie entre individus
ou groupes de personnes //pisuna vaca//;
 
3.de tout langage dur, brutal, impoli, malveillant ou injurieux //pharusa vaca//, et enfin;
 
4. de bavardages oiseux, futiles et vains //samphapalapa//.
 
Du moment qu'on s'abstient de toutes ces formes de paroles fausses et
nuisibles, on doit dire la vérité, on doit employer des mots amicaux et
bienveillants, agréables et doux, qui aient du sens et qui soient
utiles. On ne doit jamais parler négligemment, mais au moment et au lieu convenables. Si l'on n'a rien d'utile à dire, on devra garder un « noble
silence ».
(de Walpola Rahula, L'enseignement du Bouddha, Points Seuil, collection Sagesses, p. 70).
 
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II. CRITERE POUR EXAMINER LE KAMMA PRODUIT VIA LA PAROLE : EST-CE QUE CELA VA NUIRE A QUELQU’UN ?; EST-CE QUE CELA PRODUIT DUKKHA ? A EXAMINER 
1/ AVANT L’ACTE DE PARLER OU D’ECRIRE, 
2/ PENDANT L’ACTE, 
3/ APRES L’ACTION.
 
« Rahula, when you desire to do any verbal kamma, first reflect upon
that kamma: "This verbal action that I desire to do, does it lead to
harm for myself, lead to harm for others, or lead to harm for both
sides; is it an unwholesome verbal action with dukkha as its return and
dukkha as its result?" Rahula, if you reflect and then feel that it is
so, then you absolutely should not do such a verbal action.
 
Rahula, if you reflect and then feel that: "This verbal action which I
desire to do, does not lead to harm for myself, does not lead to harm
for others, and does not lead to harm for both sides; it is a wholesome
verbal action, that has joy as its return and has joy as its result";
then, Rahula, you ought to do such a verbal action. »
 
[One also reflects while doing the verbal kamma and after completing it.]
 
(extrait de Majjhima-Nikaya, Ambalatthika-rahulovada Sutta n°61)
 
 
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III. WELL-SPOKEN WORDS ARE SAMMAVACA
 
« Bhikkhus, words having these five characteristics are words
well-spoken, are not words badly-spoken, are blameless words which the
wise do not criticize. What are these five
characteristics? The five are:
 
spoken at the proper time (Kalena bhasita hoti)
spoken in line with the truth (Sacca bhasita hoti)
spoken gently (Sanha bhasita hoti)
spoken beneficially (Atthasanhita bhasita hoti)
spoken with a friendly heart (Mettacittena bhasita hoti)
 
Bhikkhus, speech having these five characteristics are words
well-spoken, are not words badly-spoken, are blameless words which the
wise do not criticize. »
 
(de : Anguttara-Nikaya, Fives.)
 
 
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IV. NOBLE & IGNOBLE WAYS OF SPEAKING
 
Bhikkhus, there are these eight kinds of anariyavohara (ignoble ways of
speaking). What are the eight kinds? The eight kinds are:
 
the tendency to speak of having seen things that have not (really) been
seen; the tendency to speak of having heard things that have not (really) been heard;
the tendency to speak of having experienced things that have not
(really) been experienced;
the tendency to speak of having realized things that have not (really)
been realized;
 
the tendency to speak of having not seen things that have been seen;
the tendency to speak of having not heard things that have been heard;
the tendency to speak of having not experienced things that have been
experienced;
the tendency to speak of having not realized things that have been
realized.
 
Bhikkhus, these are the eight anariyavohara.
 
Bhikkhus, there are these eight kinds of ariyavohara (noble ways of
speaking). What are the eight kinds? The eight kinds are:
 
the tendency to speak of having not seen things that have not been seen;
the tendency to speak of having not heard things that have not been
heard;
the tendency to speak of having not experienced things that have not
been experienced;
the tendency to speak of having not realized things that have not been
realized;
 
the tendency to speak of having seen things that have (really) been
seen;
the tendency to speak of having heard things that have (really) been
heard;
the tendency to speak of having experienced things that have (really)
been experienced;
the tendency to speak of having realized things that have (truly) been
realized.
 
Bhikkhus, these are the eight ariyavohara.
 
(Anguttara-Nikaya, Eights)
 
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V. DIX SUJETS DIGNES DE DISCUSSION (GATHAVATTHU) (SUBJECTS SUITABLE FOR
DISCUSSION AMONG BHIKKHUS, TOPICS WHICH OUGHT TO BE DISCUSSED BY
SADHAMMIKA COMRADES).
 
1.Appiccha-gatha: talk about or favorable to wanting little, words that
inspire us to have few wants and desires.
2.Santutthi-gatha: talk about or favorable to contentment, words that
inspire satisfaction with what we have and disinterest in conveniences
and luxuries.
3.Paviveka-gatha: talk about or favorable to solitude and seclusion,
words that inspire physical, mental, and spiritual solitude (freedom
from disturbances).
4.Asamsagga-gatha: talk about or favorable to not mingling together,
words that inspire us to not waste precious time and energy socializing.
 
5.Viriyarambha-gatha: talk about or favorable to perseverance and
summoning effort, words that inspire effort and striving in our
practice.
6.Sila-gatha: talk about or favorable to virtue and good conduct, words
that inspire us to to be well established in morality (normality).
7.Samadhi-gatha: talk about or favorable to well-established, stable,
focused, integrated minds, words that inspire clarity and stability of
mind.
8.Pañña-gatha: talk about or favorable to intelligence and wisdom, words
that inspire or lead to the arising of spiritual insight.
9.Vimutti-gatha: talk about or favorable to liberation, words that lead
the mind toward kilesa and dukkha.
10.Vimutti-ñanadassana-gatha: talk about or favorable to the knowledge
and vision of liberation, words that inspire interest and understanding
regarding knowledge and
vision of liberation from upadana and dukkha.
 
(Sources: M.i.145; iii.113; A.v.129.)
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passages 2, 3, 4 et 5 en anglais tirés de
http://www.suanmokkh.org/archive/default.htm
Teachings From the Buddha's Own Lips concerning Right Speech
et http://www.suanmokkh.org/dhdisc1.htm
 
 
 
 
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